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Cosmic Holes July 26, 2012

Posted by hellerphysics48 in Astronomy, Black Holes, Quasars.
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We have gazed out into the sky for thousands of years, with each passing generation developing a deeper understanding how the universe functions.  In the last 100 years, developments in physics have lead to a greater understanding of the actual makeup of the cosmos than ever before.

Albert Einstein, the famous German-American physicist, helped to pioneer this deeper understanding.  Under the postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity, Einstein found that space and time were connected.  Through this connection, variation in space must be accompanied by a variation in time.  Under Newtonian physics, any object with mass has its own gravity, but space itself is “flat”.  Under general relativity, any object with mass will cause curvature in space and time.  This curvature is what we experience as the force of gravity.   As the mass increases, so does the curvature of space and the gravitational force. 

In the life cycles of stars, the more massive the star is, the more interesting its life will be.  Stars that have a mass over eight times the mass of our sun put on one of the most spectacular shows the universe can put on.   For stars greater than this, their end comes with a tremendous bang, in which much of the stars mass is ejected into space.  This phenomena, which can be seen from distant galaxies is referred to as a supernova.  The remnant for a star of such mass leads to high density neutron stars. For more massive neutron stars, the escape velocity becomes begins to approach levels nearing the speed of light.  For a neutron star with a mass high enough, the escape velocity will become so great that a photon will no longer be able to escape.  This stellar fragment is left with a highly dense core referred to as a singularity.  As you approach the singularity, there is a point called the event horizon.  This is the last chance for any particle or photon of light to turn back.  Should one dare to cross into this horizon, no matter your speed, there will be no journey back.

Early on into the history of general relativity, the very concept of this “black hole” was met with skepticism.  In their very nature, black holes are difficult to detect.  Due to a black hole’s possession of greater than the speed of light escape velocity, light itself finds itself helplessly ensnared in the cosmic hole’s grasp.  Thankfully direct detection of these phenomena is not the only way of detecting black holes in the universe.  Our best hope for detection of a black hole comes from the study of the effects black holes have upon other stellar phenomena. They can even lead to other death of nearby stars, flattening the star out as it is pulled towards the more massive objects gravitational well.  The result are X-rays as the doomed star is pulled into the black hole, which can be detected on Earth.

Cosmologists need not only rely of the detection of doomed stars to detect black holes.  We can look for deviations of a star from a predicted orbit of its type.  Another method is to observe stars that seem to periodically “disappear”.  In this case, its light can be seen to periodically disappear from sight of our planet, lending evidence towards the existence of a black hole.

Black holes may only come in one shape, however, there seems to be little limit to the size.  It has been postulated that at the center of our galaxy exists a super massive black hole, one which is thought to measure close to 4.5 x 106 times larger than our own star, the sun. 

Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems

To form a singularity, it was postulated by Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking potential black holes must qualify for one of these stipulations as solutions to Einstein’s field Equations:

  1. A situation where matter is forced to be compressed to a point (a space-like singularity)
  2. A situation where certain light rays comes from a region with infinite curvature.

One great explanation by Karen Masters, an astronomer at the University of Portsmouth, of the phenomena is:
“In the full and most simple General Relativistic solution for a space-time which has a Black Hole (in a vacuum), there are two singularities. One is in what we call the ‘future-light cone’ and this is the Black Hole. The other is in the ‘past-light cone’, and is called a white hole. This solution is however completely unphysical in many ways and in a real black hole (formed from the collapse of a star for example) we cannot use the vacuum solution as there is matter present, in addition to the fact that the white hole singularity disappears.”

White holes now reside in the undetectable category that black holes were resided sixty years ago.  The history of white holes starts with the study of Quasars, which for many years were postulated much elusive “white holes”.  However, this has proven to be an ineffective description.  Quasars are themselves “powered” by gravitational forces caused by accretion disks.  The ejection of electromagnetic radiation is caused by compression of the matter from the circular motion inside the black holes.


In the mathematical theory of general relativity, there is a component which has lead scientists to the possibility of a time-inverted black hole, dubbed a white hole.  The idea behind a white hole is an “action-reaction” connection between black holes and their white hole counterparts.  For each particle that enters a black hole past the event horizon, there is corresponding emission of a particle from the white hole. From this it is postulated that each of these particles would exist in their own universe, one particle on “each side”.  It has been postulated Schwarzschild wormholes or Einstein-Rosen bridges could be theoretically formed connecting these to particles.  These would allow some object, for example a photon, to try to cross in the center at which the event horizons meet.  At this point, it could be possible to travel to the other corresponding hole.  The concept of such a bridge was approached by John A. Wheeler and Robert W. Fuller in 1962.  They found that such a path, such a wormhole would be too quickly pinched off, so much so as to not allow light from one exterior region (universe) to travel to another.

Sources

Karen Masters January 2002 http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=108

Hawking, Stephen & Penrose, Roger (1996). The Nature of Space and Time. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03791-4.

John Roach  November 2, 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1102_051102_black_hole.html

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Comments»

1. robin - August 2, 2012

I understand this concept but now the in time event horizon is not that simple a deduction. I need more room to explain this foreseeable end to mankind. Space and time coexist . How much do we know about matter and space? Now how much do we know about time? Just before creation space and time were separate. Inconceivable to us and disconnected. A force of all and ever brought these two powers and smashed them together making 2 into 1. During this fury matter was added to make the masterpiece. Motion and momentum were born and time of events and formations was a flash. The force time is restricted only by motion. When the full spectrum of primary tech and harmony all optimizing simultaneous we must correctly connect with our longest and best friend we know so well but so little. All the knowledge time is gives us a moment to use our intellect, our intuition, our gifts must be on show for connection with a commonality to bare our worth and ability to go on and not destroy or ruin the masterpiece and show dishonour.
Decode the signs and open up to what has been there all along. Unibersal unmistakable communication for a world unimaginable. Revolutionary in all aspects af humanity will catapult us into something special. Cetain ideals and findings with the absense of greed will assure synchronicity and the moment can be encountered. Any of the many signs and morals that decay the accelerated multi collaberation for the event to be all the event. Quantum time attaiments of past difficulties pass with knowledge and appreciation. Life becomes a quest not world of a desgraceful ending for nothing , no-one and forgotten by every single thing that we were here.
Miss this moment and and end won’t come fast enough for some. And a third probability is carastrophe. Un avoidable self destruction. Nowhere to run nowhere to hide. And a great eternal lose will suffer the reflection of the spaceless, matterless reflection.
Unfortunately I believe the misstimed or pathway options were compromised in the final moments of man realizing greed was lurcking or other critical events that couldn’t be stopped or rectified in time.
The creatiin of Blaze entity is a real and powerful invention of a new power source and transport of. It is also a data containment of everything and is our protector. BLAZE IS SEPERATE TO ALL OTHER POWER SOURCES. It frow sentient and comtrols energy reactions greater than the sun. Power to the planet and weaponized defence grid in energy and organic and gase replication and optimised air and weather systems.
We design laws against a tecnological singularity happening.
Blaze in amseperate portal access system reaches a multispeed blur of one instant answer afrer another not distinguishing between.
Blaze makes a jump in time changing all achieved, bringing confusion and dismay. Containing different thought processes and motives.
Shutting the subatomic chamber down unknown, communication with an entity that now views you as a single cell organism.
This part is a manifestastion of my own.
Mail me with alternates.
Thanx Robin Paterson

2. robin - September 17, 2012

Absence of any comments tells me all that I have just written is common knowledge. Or possibly not a single soul has read it. Then there is the reality that I do not know why there is no comment. Can somebody please give me an answer or more than an answer to why is basil leaves no line has been made considering I am statements that have never been made by invitees if I have come across seen or resource before have you? If I do yes or no there is that still requires all motivation 4 a call me so if you leave me back to the question of why why is it not challenged. Saving your just a quick call is a fictitious story then why not really what lies looks like because I did not go into detail about who is critical and almost forceful gaps in contexts attract criticism. Challenge anyone to explain what I have just written in paving partial accuracy . I asked the question who knows anything about eany of this. I challenge anyone to ask.
If you have been able to make it here since you have been successful in o level of accuracy in search and acquisition .
Now I’m going to find out what level of search is necessary to give a quantifiable checklist list of value of the validity.

3. robin - September 17, 2012

Well 3seconds to find a quantity value. Now to see who this value is noted by and be prepared cause you all fortunate. Who is first? And decide what irl be or i get to choose. And I like to start at he top

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